本研究室スポーツ実技および講義科目関連論文

本研究室が主催するスポーツ実技および講義科目の授業効果に関する論文一覧

6.大学入学までのスポーツ経験が及ぼす2つの自己効力感と自己愛への影響 ―構造方程式モデリングによる自己効力感の因果性検討―
重藤 誠市郎,山崎 享子, John Patrick Sheahan, 奥田 功夫, 一川 大輔
運動とスポーツの科学 23(2) 103-109 2018年3月 [査読有り]

本研究の目的は, 構造方程式モデリングを用いて特性的自己効力感と課題固有の自己効力感のどちらが先行要因であるかを検討し, 大学入学までのスポーツ経験 (継続年数, 高校時の継続年数) が2つの自己効力感と自己愛に与える影響について明らかにすることであった. 大学生878名 (男子683名, 女子195名, 平均年齢18.9歳)を対象に, 体育などを除くスポーツの経験年数 (経験年数) と高校在学時のスポーツ経験年数 (高校年数)について調査し, 測定尺度には特性的自己効力感(Generalized Self-Efficacy: GSE) , 運動セルフ・エフィカシー(Exercise Self-Efficacy: 運動SE) , 自己愛人格傾向(Narcissistic Personality Inventory: NPI) を用いた. 仮説モデルの検証に先立って, NPIの探索的因子分析において有能感因子, 注目欲求因子, 自己信頼因子, 身体賞賛因子, リーダー因子が抽出された. その結果,経験年数, 高校年数, 運動SE, GSE, NPIの5因子を仮説モデルの変数とした. 構造方程式モデリングにおいて仮説モデル1 (GSE→運動SE) と仮説モデル2 (運動SE→GSE) の検証を行った結果, 仮説モデル1の適合度指数は, CMIN=3.105 (p=.875), GFI=.999, AGFI=.995, CFI=1.000, RMSEA=.000となり, 仮説モデル2よりも高い適合度が認められた. 仮説モデル1では経験年数と高校年数からGSEへの直接効果が認められ, スポーツ経験によってスポーツ以外の場面においての自己効力感にも影響を与えることが示された. また, GSEからNPIの5因子への有意なパスが示され, GSEがNPIの促進要因である可能性が示唆された.
キーワード 特性的自己効力感, スポーツ経験, 構造方程式モデリング, 自己愛

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether either generalized self-efficacy or task-specific self-efficacy is an antecedent factor on a structural equation modeling, as well as to verify what influence the number of years being engaged in sports activity before entering college (TEY: Total Experience Years, HSY: High School Years) has on the two types of self-efficacy and self-love. Eight hundred and seventy-eight college students (683 male, 195 female, mean age 18.9 years old) answered a questionnaire consisting of questions regarding the number of years engaged in sporting activity excluding Physical Education class and the number of years engaged in sporting activity in high school. Measurement scales used in the study were the Generalized Self-Efficacy scale (GSE), Exercise Self-Efficacy (Exercise-SE) scale, and Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). Before verifying the accuracy of the hypothetical model, an exploratory factor analysis on NPI extracted five factors consisting of Competence factor, Attention desire factor, Self-reliance factor, Body praise factor, and Leader factor. Consequently, TEY, HSY, Exercise-SE, GSE and five factors of NPI were identified as variables of the hypothetical model. Structure equation modeling verified hypothetical model 1 (GSE → Exercise-SE) and hypothetical model 2 (Exercise-SE → GSE). The result revealed that hypothetical model 1 showed a higher goodness of fit index (CMIN=3.105 (p=.875), GFI=.999, AGFI=.995, CFI=1.000, RMSEA=.000) than hypothetical model 2. Hypothetical model 1 demonstrated a direct effect from the TEY and HSY to the GSE. It showed that the number of years engaged in sporting activity affects self-efficacy outside of a sports environment. It also showed that a valid pass exists from GSE to five factors of NPI, implying that GSE could be a promoting factor of NPI.
Key Words: Generalized self-efficacy, Sport experience, Structure equation modeling, self-love

5.ゴルフスイング動作とパッティング能力の測定からみた授業成果に関する研究, 一川 大輔, 奥田 功夫, 大学体育学, (14) 16 – 23, 2017年03月 [査読有り]
http://daitairen.or.jp/2013/wp-content/uploads/49fddc1a50480e84fced92d62837f02f.pdf

本研究の目的は,15 週にわたる大学ゴルフ実技を履修する初心者のゴルフ能力を評価することであった。7 番アイアンを用いた際の3 次元ゴルフスイング動作は,授業期間中のゴルフ能力の向上を評価するために記録された。本研究におけるスイング分析項目は,1. ヘッドスピード,2. バックスイングのトップ時点での肩角度,腰角度, 3. バックスイングのトップ時点での捻転差とダウンスイング中の最大値,4. ダウンスイング中の捻転差の最大角速度であった。パッティングは,上り坂におけるターゲット(カップ)から3m の2 箇所と下り坂におけるカップから3m の2 箇所にて行った。パッティング能力の測定項目は,1. 左右方向の誤差距離,2. 前後方向の誤差距離であった。誤差距離は,カップの中心から測定した。全ての測定は,3 回目授業(Pre)と15 回目授業 (Post) に行った。その結果,ヘッドスピードは,授業期間で有意な増加を示さなかった。
バックスイングのトップ時点での腰角度は,48.3 ± 6.9 deg から56.6 ± 7.7 deg へと有意な増加が認められた。しかしながら,腰の角速度は有意な増加を示さなかった。ダウンスイングにおける捻転差の変化率は,3.8 ± 5.3% から5.8 ± 9.6% と変化率は小さかった。3m パッティングテストを実施した結果,上り坂と下り坂においてPre からPost において向上は認められなかった。この結果,15 週のゴルフ授業を通じ,腰回転角度の変化をもたらすことは出来たが,ボールインパクトまでにその最大角速度を増加することは出来ないことを示唆した。加えて,パッティング能力は向上していなかった。これらの結果,ゴルフラウンドに対応出来るような技術水準に到達出来るような授業内容への改善を図る必要があることを示唆した。また学外実習を追加した大学ゴルフ実技のカリキュラム構成を推進することも重要であると考えた。

The purpose of this study was to evaluate golf abilities of novice golfers taking a 15-week university golf class. Three dimensional motion of golf swing with a 7-iron club was recorded to evaluate the improvement of golf ability during the class. Swing motions analyzed in this study were, 1. Club head velocity, 2. Shoulder and pelvic angle at the top of the backswing, 3. Separation angle at the top of the backswing between the shoulder and pelvis and its maximum value in the downswing, and 4. Maximum angular velocity of the separation angle in the downswing. A 3m putting test was used to evaluate putting ability. Putts were taken from two positions 3m from the target (cup) on an uphill slope and two positions 3m from the cup on a downhill slope. Measurements taken to evaluate putting ability were, 1. left and right distance of error, 2. front and back distance of error. Distance of error was measured from the center of the cup. All the measurements were taken at 3rd class (Pre) and at 15th class (Post). There was no significant increase in the club head velocity after the golf class. The pelvic rotation angle at the top of the backswing significantly increased from 48.3 ± 6.9 degrees to 56.6 ± 7.7 degrees. However, the maximum angular velocity of the pelvic segment was not increased. The change ratio of separation angle was from 3.8 ± 5.3% to 5.8 ± 9.6% in the downswing, which was small. No significant improvement was found in the 3m putting test for both uphill and
downhill conditions between Pre and Post. This indicated that through the 15-week golf class, it was possible to learn to change pelvic rotational angle, but it was not possible to increase the maximum angular velocity by the time of ball impact. In addition, putting ability did not improve. These results indicated the need for the content of the class to be
revised so that the students can attain a level that would enable them to complete an actual round of golf. We also believe it indicates the need for universities to carry out golf classes in their curriculum that additionally include off campus classes.

4.Field-based simplified approach of evaluating knee extensor muscle strength and size in male university freshmen., Yasuda T, Ichikawa D., Journal of Sports Science, 4, (5) 272 – 278, 2016年07月 [査読有り]
http://www.davidpublisher.org/index.php/Home/Article/index?id=28489.html

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between field-based simplified approaches and knee extensor muscle strength/size in young men. Knee extensor muscle thickness (MT) of 104 healthy university freshmen was measured at the anterior half of thigh length; maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured when subjects performed knee extension. Field-based simplified approaches [sit-to-stand, standing long jump (SLJ), handgrip and upper-leg-50% (thigh) girth] were also measured. MVIC was correlated with SLJ (r = 0.361, P < 0.001), handgrip (r = 0.523, P < 0.001) and thigh girth (r = 0.401, P < 0.001), but not with the sit-to-stand test (r = 0.126, P > 0.05). MT was correlated with handgrip (r = 0.317, P < 0.001) and thigh girth (r = 0.632, P < 0.001), but not with SLJ (r = 0.038, P > 0.05) or the sit-to-stand test (r = 0.145, P > 0.05). A stepwise multiple-regression analysis was applied to the predictor thigh girth to predict knee extensor MT (R2 = 0.399). To predict knee extensor MVIC, the predictor handgrip, thigh girth and SLJ were applied (R2 = 0.381). In conclusion, knee extensor muscle strength/size could be evaluated by the field-based simplified approaches, in particular by the thigh girth measurement, which may be major determinant to maintain activities of daily living for healthy young men. However, the 4 field-based simplified approaches appear to be still not of high impact.

3.週1回の大学スポーツ実技が下肢の筋力・筋パワー維持に及ぼす影響, 一川 大輔, 安田 智洋, 大学体育学, (13) 35 – 42, 2016年01月 [査読有り]
http://daitairen.or.jp/2013/wp-content/uploads/05_35-42.pdf

本研究の目的は,15週にわたる大学体育授業の中でスポーツ活動を行った場合,その授業前後で大学生の下肢体力テスト結果を比較することであった。健康な男子大学生80名がこの研究に参加した。学生らは,大学体育授業のうち10週間,ソフトボール・フットサル・バスケットボールの何れかを選択し週1回実践した。測定は2・3回目(pre)と14・15回目(post)の授業時に実施した。測定項目は,身長・体重・体格指数 (body mass index: BMI)・収縮期血圧・拡張期血圧・安静時脈拍,大腿部筋厚(前面・後面)・下腿部筋厚(後面)・筋力余裕度・膝関節伸展筋力・立幅跳・30秒椅子立ち上がりテスト (30-s chair stand test: CS-30)・閉眼片足立ち時間・握力であった。体重, BMI, 収縮期血圧,拡張期血圧はpreからpostで有意な低下 (p < 0.05)を示した (体重: 62.8 ± 8.2 kg vs. 61.8 ± 7.4 kg, BMI: 21.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2 vs. 20.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2, 収縮期血圧: 118.6 ± 10.2 mmHg vs. 112.3 ± 10.3 mmHg, 拡張期血圧: 71.0 ± 9.1 mmHg vs. 65.8 ± 9.2 mmHg) 。筋厚はpreからpostで大腿部後面と下腿部後面には有意な変化を認めた(p < 0.05)が,大腿部前面には有意差を認めなかった。筋力余裕度・立幅跳,CS-30はpreからpostで有意な増加 (p < 0.05) を示した(筋力余裕度: 197.7 ± 17.8% vs. 202.4 ± 20.1%, 立幅跳: 211.4 ± 0.2 cm vs. 221.5 ± 0.2 cm, CS-30: 36.9 ± 4.0回 vs. 39.2 ± 4.3 回)。膝関節伸展筋力は,preからpostで有意な変化 (p > 0.05) を認めなかった (41.6 ± 9.2 kg vs. 43.3 ± 9.5 kg)。閉眼片足立ち時間はpreからpostで有意な増加 (p < 0.05) を示した (60.4 ± 37.1秒 vs. 77.0 ± 40.4 秒)。我々の研究の結果,大学体育授業における毎週の定期的なスポーツ活動が,大学生の下肢筋力・筋パワーに影響を及ぼすことが示唆された。
キーワード:下肢筋力,筋力余裕度,筋厚,運動介入

The purpose of this study was to compare lower body-based physical fitness tests of university students before and after 15-week of sports activity in a university physical education class. Eighty male university students participated in this study. They took a physical education class (softball, futsal or basketball) in university once a week for 10 weeks. Measurements taken at 2nd and 3rd class (pre) and at 14th and 15th class (post) were: body weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), resting heart rate, muscle thickness (MT) for anterior and posterior thigh and posterior lower leg, girth for thigh and lower leg, muscle strength margin with squat-to-stand motion (MSM), knee extension muscle strength (KE), standing broad jump (SBJ), 30-s chair test (CS-30), one-legged standing with eyes closed and handgrip (HG). Body weight, BMI, SBP and DBP were decreased (p < 0.05) from pre to post (Body weight: 62.8 ± 8.2 kg vs. 61.8 ± 7.4 kg, BMI: 21.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2 vs. 20.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2, SBP: 118.6 ± 10.2 mmHg vs. 112.3 ± 10.3 mmHg, DBP: 71.0 ± 9.1 mmHg vs. 65.8 ± 9.2 mmHg, respectively). There were differences (p < 0.05) in MT between pre and post for posterior thigh and lower leg, but not for anterior thigh. MSM, SBJ and CS-30 were increased (p < 0.05) from pre to post (MSM: 197.7 ± 17.8% vs. 202.4 ± 20.1%, SBJ: 211.4 ± 0.2 cm vs. 221.5 ± 0.2 cm, CS-30: 36.9 ± 4.0 times vs. 39.2 ± 4.3 times, respectively). There was no difference (p > 0.05) between pre and post in KE (41.6 ± 9.2 kg vs. 43.3 ± 9.5 kg). One-legged standing with eyes closed was increased (p < 0.05) from pre to post (60.4 ± 37.1 sec vs. 77.0 ± 40.4 sec). Our results indicate that weekly sports activity in a university physical education class effects in lower muscle strength and power in university students.
Key word:lower muscle strength, muscle strength margin, muscle thickness, exercise intervention

2.大学体育授業における運動好き群の自己愛傾向とセルフ・エフィカシーとの関係性, 重藤 誠市郎, 奥田 功夫, 一川 大輔, スポーツ健康科学紀要, (11) 11 – 19, 2014年03月
https://toyo.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=pages_view_main&active_action=repository_view_main_item_detail&item_id=6847&item_no=1&page_id=13&block_id=17

セルフ・エフィカシーが自己愛に与える影響力について,運動習慣の有無による比較を行った。運動習慣あり群では,主導性・身体賞賛・自己確信の3因子に対して影響力があり,セルフ・エフィカシーによって自己への自信や信頼が高まっていた。運動習慣なし群では,注目欲求・誇大感・自己確信の3因子に対して影響力があり,セルフ・エフィカシーが自己を誇大化し,他者からの注目を要求する傾向を高めていることが判明した。

Narcissism means loving oneself or caring for oneself. It varies from healthy to unhealthy. Particularly unrealistic narcissism tends to develop during adolescence. It was found that narcissism was more highly developed in athletes compared to non-athletes. Unhealthy narcissism could easily develop when an athlete loved oneself too much or a non-athlete loved oneself too little. It was also found that athletes who continued to engage in sport until college showed high self-efficacy compared to athletes who had stopped engaging in sport after junior high school. It is hypothesized that athletes who continue to engage in sport until college could have higher self-love as well as higher self-efficacy. This study examined how self-efficacy affects self-loving characteristics between a high physical activity group and a low physical activity group in pro-exercise males in college physical education class. We used three questionnaire surveys completed by 45 college male students to examine self-loving (narcissism) with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory 35, self-efficacy with the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, and exercise self-efficacy with the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. The result from multiple linear regression analysis showed that different self-loving factors were affected between the two groups. Three self-loving factors were high in the high physical activity group; leadership(β = .52), praise for the body(β = .39), and self-conviction(β = .51), while four self-loving factors were high in the low physical activity group; narcissism total score (β = .63), need for attention(β = .57), sense of grandeur(β = .65), and self-conviction(β = .64). We found that the high physical activity group showed their self-loving characteristics through pride of self-assertiveness and pride in their own body. This implies that exercise habits could be related when a development of self-efficacy strengthens leadership and pride in the body in the self-loving characteristics.

1.超音波Bモード法による下肢筋厚と体力テストとの関係 ~スポーツ健康科学実技Ⅰにおける大学新入生男子を対象として~, 一川 大輔, 山崎 享子, 安田 智洋, スポーツ健康科学紀要, (11) 1 – 10, 2014年03月
https://toyo.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=pages_view_main&active_action=repository_view_main_item_detail&item_id=6846&item_no=1&page_id=13&block_id=17

本研究は,スポーツ健康科学実技Ⅰを履修する大学新入生男子116名を対象とし,超音波Bモード測定装置による大腿部と下腿部の筋組織厚(筋厚)から筋量を評価し,さらに下肢筋力に特化した体力テストとの関係性を分析した。その結果,新入生の体力テストとして,大腿部前面と下肢部後面の筋量および下肢筋力を評価する重要性が明らかとなり,文部科学省が指定する体力テスト測定項目をより精査する必要が示された。

It is well known that size and strength of skeletal muscle decreases with increasing age (sarcopenia), notably in the lower extremity muscles. Recent studies indicate that university students in Japan have low levels of physical activity, and that muscle strength for the lower extremity decreases every year. Therefore, physical tests for university students should be focused on size/strength of the lower extremity muscles. However, an appropriate physical test to evaluate lower extremity muscle size in university students has not been explored.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lower extremity muscle thickness and physical test results in male university students.
Methods: University freshmen from the faculty of science and engineering in Toyo University participated in the study (N=116). Ninety-eight healthy men (aged 18-21 years) had their muscle thickness measured by B-mode ultrasound (Voluson i, GE Healthcare) at 3 sites [anterior 50% and posterior 50% of thigh length (MTa and MTp) and posterior 30% of lower leg length (MTc)]. Isometric knee extension strength (KE), 30-second chair stand (CS-30) test, standing broad jump (SBJ), and one-legged standing with eyes closed (EC) were also measured.
Results: Physical characteristics [standing height (170.7 ± 4.7 cm), body mass (62.0 ± 7.0 kg), body mass index (BMI, 21.0 ± 2.2), MTa (52.0 ± 6.4 mm), MTp (57.0 ± 5.8 mm), MTc (65.9 ± 4.8 mm)] and physical test [MVC (40.4 ± 10.7 kg), CS-30 (33.0 ± 4.5 reps), SBJ (213.9 ± 18.7 cm), and EC (66.3 ± 35.1 sec)] were similar to standard values of the overall Japanese population for the same age group. KE was correlated with MTa (r=0.349, p<0.01) and MTc (r=0.311, p<0.01), but not with MTp (r=0.190, p>0.05). CS-30 test was correlated with MTa (r=0.209, p<0.05), but not with MTp or MTc (r=0.085 and 0.040, p>0.05, respectively). There were no correlations between distance of SBJ and MTa (r=0.049, p>0.05), MTp (r=0.149, p>0.05) or MTc (r=-0.031, p>0.05). There were no correlations between time of one-legged standing with EC and MTa (r=-0.052, p>0.05), MTp (r=0.079, p>0.05) or MTc (r=-0.111, p>0.05).
Conclusions: Our results indicated measurement of muscle size using B-mode ultrasound is a useful method for evaluating lower extremity muscle strength, and thus could play an important role in the physical testing of university freshmen for prevention of sarcopenia and maintaining a future active life.
Key words:Sarcopenia, lower extremity muscle thickness, physical test